Roads in Kerala
Kerala has 145,704 kilometers (90,536 mi) of roads (4.2% of India's total). This translates to about 4.62 kilometers (2.87 mi) of road per thousand population, compared to an all India average of 2.59 kilometers (1.61 mi). Virtually all of Kerala's villages are connected by road.
Roads in Kerala includes 1,524 km of National highway (2.6% of nation's total), 4006 km of state highway and 23,702 km of district roads. Most of Kerala's west coast is accessible through two national highways, NH 47, and NH 17 and eastern side is accessible through various State Highways. There is also a Hill Highway (Kerala) proposed, to make easy access to eastern hills.
NH 17 connects Edapally (Kochi) to Panavel (near Mumbai) and is the longest stretch of national highway through the state. The other major national highway passing through the state is National Highway 47 which connects Salem to Kanyakumari and passes through the major towns and cities like Palakkad, Thrissur, Kochi, Alappuzha, Kollam andThiruvananthapuram. The Salem-Kochi stretch of this highway is a part of North-South Corridor of the Indian highway system. The length of the National Highway 47 (India) through Kerala is 416.8 km. NH 49 (Kochi - Dhanushkodi), NH 208 (Kollam - Thirumangalam), NH 212 (Kozhikode - Mysore), NH 213 (Kozhikode - Palakkad), NH 220 (Kollam - theni) are the other national highways serving the state of Kerala.
The Kerala State Transport Project (KSTP), which includes the GIS-based Road Information and Management Project (RIMS), is responsible for maintaining and expanding the state highways system; it also oversees major district roads.
Traffic in Kerala has been growing at a rate of 10–11% every year, resulting in high traffic and pressure on the roads. Kerala's roaddensity is nearly four times the national average, reflecting the state's high population density. Kerala's annual total of road accidents is among the nation's highest.
The Indian Railways' Southern Railway line runs throughout the state, connecting all major towns and cities except those in the highland districts of Idukki and Wayanad. Trivandrum Railway Division and Palakkad Railway Division are the two railway divisions in the state. Kerala's major railway stations are Kasaragod, Kannur, Kozhikode, Shornur Junction, Palakkad Junction, Thrissur, Aluva,Ernakulam Town, Ernakulam Junction, Alappuzha, Kottayam, Chengannur, Kollam Junction, Kochuveli and Thiruvananthapuram Central.
The backwaters traversing the state are an important mode of inland navigation. National Waterway 3 traverse through the state.
The state has three major international airports at Thiruvananthapuram, Kochi, and Kozhikode. The Trivandrum International Airport is the first International airport in a non-metro city in India. The Cochin International Airport (COK) was the first Indian airport incorporated as a public limited company and is funded by nearly 10,000 Non Resident Indians from 30 countries. A fourth international airport is proposed at Kannur.